This study identifies and proposes techniques to alleviate two key
bottlenecks to executing deep neural networks in trusted execution environments
(TEEs): page thrashing during the execution of convolutional layers and the
decryption of large weight matrices in fully-connected layers. For the former,
we propose a novel partitioning scheme, y-plane partitioning, designed to (ii)
provide consistent execution time when the layer output is large compared to
the TEE secure memory; and (ii) significantly reduce the memory footprint of
convolutional layers. For the latter, we leverage quantization and compression.
In our evaluation, the proposed optimizations incurred latency overheads
ranging from 1.09X to 2X baseline for a wide range of TEE sizes; in contrast,
an unmodified implementation incurred latencies of up to 26X when running
inside of the TEE.

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