Cellular networks connect nearly every human on the planet; they consequently have visibility into location data and
voice, SMS, and data contacts and communications. Such near-universal visibility represents a significant threat to the privacy of mobile subscribers.
In 5G networks, end-user mobile device manufacturers assign a Permanent Equipment Identifier (PEI) to every new device.
Mobile operators legitimately use the PEI to blocklist stolen devices from the network to discourage device theft, but the static PEI
also provides a mechanism to uniquely identify and track subscribers.
Advertisers and data brokers have also historically abused the PEI for data fusion of location and analytics data, including private data sold by cellular providers.

In this paper, we present a protocol that allows mobile devices to prove that they are not in the blocklist without revealing their PEI to any entity on the network.
Thus, we maintain the primary purpose of the PEI while preventing potential privacy violations.
We describe provably secure anonymous proof of blocklist non-membership for cellular network, based on the RSA accumulators and zero-knowledge proofs introduced by
Camenisch and Lysyanskaya (Crypto’02) and
expanded upon by Li, Li and Xue (ACNS’07).
We show experimentally that this approach is viable for cellular networks: a phone can create a blocklist non-membership proof in only 3432 milliseconds of online computation,
and the network can verify the proof in less than one second on average.
In total this adds fewer than 4.5 seconds to the
rare network attach process.
This work shows that PEIs can be attested anonymously in 5G and future network generations, and it paves the way for additional advances toward a cellular network with guaranteed privacy.

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